Technical Aspects

Technical Aspects

TECHNICAL ASPECTS

 

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

 

Milk may be defined as the whole, fresh clean lacteal secretion obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy milch animals, excluding that obtained within 15 days before or 5 days after calving or such periods as may be necessary to render the milk practically colostrums – free and containing the minimum proscribed percentage of milk fat and milk solids – not fat (SNF). In India, the term “milk”, when unqualified refers to cow or buffalo milk, or a combination of these two.

            The term “market milk” refers to fluid whole milk that is sold to individuals usually for direct consumption.  It excluded milk consumed on the form and that used for the manufacture of dairy.  

            The major constituents of milk are water, fat, protein, lactose and ash or mineral matter.  The minor constituents are phospholipids, sterols, vitamins, enzymes, pigments etc. the true constituents are milk fat, casein and lactose. 

            The average chemical compositions of milk of buffalo, cow goat are given below.

Name

Water

Fat

Protein

Lactose

Ash

Buffalo

84.2

6.6

3.9

5.2

0.8

Cow

84.6

4.6

3.4

4.9

0.7

Goat

86.5

4.5

3.5

4.7

0.8

Milk differs widely in composition. All milks contain the same kind of constituents, but in varying amounts.  Milk from individual cows shows greater variation than mixed herd milk.  In general milk fat shows the greatest daily variation, then comes protein, followed by ash and sugar.  The factors affecting the composition of milk are Species, Breed interval of milking, Frequency of milking, Disease  and abnormal conditions, Stage of lactations,  Yield, Feeding, Season, Age, Administration of drugs and hormones  etc.

 

 

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